The rule of thirds
The rule of thirds is a very basic yet very effective piece of equipment when it comes to composing or constructing an image.
“It is a mathematical rule that is applied to photography to ensure it is dynamic and interesting”.
What using this rule does to the image is that it creates a sense of balance without making the image look too static, and it also creates an airiness of complexity without the image looking too busy.
You do not have to perfectly align the main subject within the thirds of an image, it is just a rough guideline. What’s usually most important is that the main subject is not always directly in the middle.
Regarding landscapes, the norm is having the horizon align with the upper or lower third of the image. This gives a more dynamic and vibrant feel to the landscape. The subject in a landscape image will usually be either side of the photo, giving then a sense of direction.
In both images above, the animals are placed to the left third, giving the impression they are ready to take off to the right. “Off-centre composition is a powerful way to convey or imply motion”.
In the image below, part of the empty sky was cropped off so that the hirzon aligned with the upper third of the image. This emphasises the foreground and the mountains. cropping can result in a better and improved image, as long as the rule is followed.
180 degree rule
the 180 degrees rule essentially is about keeping the audience orientated when watching a sequence in a film.
As you can see in this image, if this was to be filmed, we would place the wide camera in the centre of the two people to capture there conversation. In the case of this image, the wide camera was placed above the line. This means the two single cameras at the the sides cannot move below the line so that when it is switched back everything is in its logical place.
However, if the side cameras get placed below the line like so, it makes it look as if the actors have switched sides, which could disorientate the audience.