Textual Analysis 10:’Coraline’ Opening Title Sequence

Background

The film ‘Coraline’ is a 2009 American stop motion dark fantasy thriller film. The film is based on the 2002 novel of the same name by Neil Gainman. The film was written and directed by Henry Selick. It was produced by Laika and distributed by Focus Features. The film was made with Gaiman’s approval and cooperation.

The film is about a family who move to a new house. The daughter, Coraline, is an adventurous girl and finds a secret door containing an idealised parallel world. However, Coraline is unaware that the alternate world contains a dark and sinister secret.

 

The Title Sequence

For the first 46 seconds of this sequence the frame is just filled with different titles on a background. The titles look as if they are being sown into the background, foreshadowing what will be happening in the film. The background is of textile material, which two is very fitting for the film. The editing of the button falling into place in the title of the name of the film is a very good use of editing, as the buttons for eyes is the turning point or the disequilibrium in the narrative, as it is when Coraline realises that the parallel world is crazy. The sound starts quite slow and low-key, then suddenly turns into a faced paced beat. The music is quite eerie, setting a good mood for the film.

The music slows down a little when the doll flies in through the window. The doll is caught by mysterious, thin metal hands. The identity of these hands are not known until the very end of the film when the audience find out they belong to the antagonist “the other mother”. This is a very common convention of thriller films. The text is now not in a style that looks like its been sown on, it now appears to be more neat and perfect, parallel to how the parallel world appears to be perfect. The audience begin to see the hands dismantle the doll, creating and enigma in the audience as they don’t understand as to why this doll is being dismantled.

The music’s pace picks up again and gets louder when the doll is beginning to be put back together. The music does briefly pause when the hand opens up a draw containing a lot of buttons, again signifying the importance of buttons in the film.

The sequence then comes to a close, with the music fading out into an howl-like sound, a sound well recognised in the thriller genre, used to create suspense. We also see the completion of the doll, which has an uncanny resemblance to the protagonist, Coraline.

 

Side Note

This title sequence is quite different to the others I have looked at as it is solely animation. Obviously when it comes to our title sequence it shan’t just be animation as it would not meet the criteria from the exam board, but this title sequence has given me some great ideas for what I could do in terms of the editing of titles in our title sequence.

 

 

Textual Analysis 9: ‘Shutter Island’ Opening Title Sequence

Background

‘Shutter Island’  is a 2010 American neo-noir psychological thriller film. It was directed by Martin Scorsese. It was also based on the 2003 novel ‘Shutter Island’ written by Dennis Lehane.

Martin Scorsese is also the director of the crime thriller film ‘The Departed’, which I did a film review on. He is another director that I will be inspired by when it comes to the main task due to his apparent experience and success in thriller films.

In 1954, two U.S. Marshals – Edward “Teddy” Daniels and his new partner, Chuck Aule – travel to the Ashecliffe Hospital for the criminally insane on Shutter Island located in Boston Harbor. They are investigating the disappearance of patient Rachel Solando, who was incarcerated for drowning her three children.

Plot summary from- https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Shutter_Island_(film)

 

The Title Sequence

This YouTube video happens to have analysis on it, but does not stay on screen for very long at all. Below I will analyse the sequence in further detail.

At the start of the sequence the viewer is presented with an shot of a damp and dark looking corridor. The low key lighting mixed with the sharp, eerie music and the “blood red credits” builds a lot of tension and enigma in the audience in only the first shot.

There is suddenly a quick cut to an edit of a spiralling staircase. This creates a sense of unease and enigma in the audience as the edit disorientates them.

This is followed by another cut to a gate of some sort in a dimly lit room. The cooperation of rain and the music adds to the morbid, dark scene, building suspense in the audience as they are wondering what will appear next.

The following shot is a close up of a hand, keeping the identity of the person hidden, which is a very conventional mechanism used in thriller films regarding the antagonist.

The audience then hears a large crash in the non-diegetic music, with a shot of a gate. This shot starts off as quite wide then zooms into to become of a close up, and makes the audience feel as if they are entering the gates, adding suspense as they don’t know where they are headed.

The sequence then dims to black before cutting to the next shot which is a close up shot of a room. The audience do not know what room they are in, creating unease in them, and with the addition of flames signifies even more danger.

The sequence then cuts to a close up shot of a gun, with a foot stepping on it, and the identity still being hid. This creates suspense in the audience as they see a character they don’t know is in possession of a murder weapon.

A couple of shots after show a dark room with handcuffs and chains. This gives the audiences clues to the crime genre of the film, also backed up by the shot of gates earlier.

The music takes a deep dramatic twist when the dark room is momentarily lit by the spark of a match. This use of editing creates a lot of suspense in the audience.

The sequence then cuts to a more long, establishing shot, moving away from the close ups. It is of what appears to be of a deserted island, linking to the idea of crime, as in a prison you are isolated.

The audience is then presented with the title in big, bold, blood red text. The text zooms towards the audience, grasping their attention by making them feel as if they have been sucked into the film itself.

Many thanks to- https://www.youtube.com/channel/UCEwlu8nn3FhBob3lJuTgPLg

Textual Analysis 8: ‘Lord of War’ Opening Title Sequence

‘Lord of War’ is a 2005 war crime film. The director is Andrew Niccol. Nicolas Cage also produces and stars in it.

This film charts the rise and fall of Yuri Orlov, from his early days in the early 1980s in Little Odessa, selling guns to mobsters in his local neighbourhood, through to his ascension through the decade of excess and indulgence into the early 90s, where he forms a business partnership with an African warlord and his psychotic son. The film also charts his relationship through the years with his younger brother, his marriage to a famous model, his relentless pursuit by a determined federal agent and his inner demons that sway between his drive for success and the immorality of what he does.

This summary is from- http://www.imdb.com/title/tt0399295/plotsummary

 

The Title sequence

The sequence starts off in a what appears to be a industrial factory. The lighting is also very low key. The first line of the song is “something happened here”, leading the audience into enigma as they want to know what is going on.

The camera goes on to track the ‘life’ of a bullet, and follows it through its production stage. The mixture of the creation of an object that is used to kill and the creepy music gives a very eerie feel to the sequence.

The viewer continues to follow the bullet on its journey. All the different faces and places the bullets see could be representative of the mass amount of lives war and violence effects.

The angle the audience is presented with when the bullet is in the barrel of the gun builds suspense in the viewer as they can anticipate what is going to happen next.

 

Textual Analysis 7: ‘Black Swan’ Opening Title Sequence

Black Swan is a 2010 American psychological thriller film directed by Darren Aronofsky and written by Mark Heyman, Andres Heinz, and John McLaughlin.

It stars Natalie Portman, Vincent Cassel, Mila Kunis and Winona Ryder.

The plot revolves around the producion of the  Tchaikovsky’s Swan Lake ballet by a big New York City company. The production requires a ballerina to play the role of the the innocent white swan, which is the perfect  role for Nina (Natalie Portman) and also the role of the dark, sensual black swan which is better suited to Lily (Mila Kunis). Nina then finds herself  competing to breaking point to get the role. The audinece sees her experience obsession, passion and immense pressure.

The Title Sequence

When the sequence starts, the audience see a blank screen fade into  white-ish colour. A black line then runs through the centre of the frame. Dark, eerie music is then gradually introduced and above the black line is filled with blackness. two swans then appear and run opposite each other along the line, both contrasting the colour of their background.

When the swans are near the end of the line, the sequence takes a hard hit as a massive red line crashes into the sequence and the background its now fully black.

The sequence then transitions to a white background, with black feathers falling. until they cover the whole frame. The constant switches between a black background and a white background is representative of the battle between Nina (the perfect white swan) and Lily (the perfect black swan).

The text throughout the sequence is very formal and conservative. This could be representative of the perfectionism in Nina, as the text looks neat and perfect.

Textual Analysis 6: ‘127 Hours’ Opening Title Sequence

Introduction 

127 Hours is a 2010 British-American biographical survival drama film directed, co-written, and produced by Danny Boyle.

It is about canyoneers who become trapped by a boulder in an isolated slot canyon in Utah.

It is a British and American venture produced by Everest Entertainment, Film4 Productions, HandMade Films and Cloud Eight Films.

 

The Title Sequence

 

At the start of the sequence, multiple long shots are used. Long shots are generally used to establish the setting of of a film, however the use of multiple different long shots edited next to each other makes the viewer feel disorientated, which is a contrast to what a conventional establishing shot does. These long shots also have very high key lighting, which is not very conventional of a thriller film. With the shots all the people appear to be minding their own business and just going on about their lives.  This too is quite unconventional as generally a thriller title sequence will focus on a certain aspect of the plot. It could be argued however that these all the random people minding their own business links to Aron Ralston not being saved and having to save himself as no one else knew where he was because everyone is focused on themselves and shows how if one person is missing people won’t necessarily notice, life goes on. Multiple people has connotations to chlostrobia, which foreshadows Aron’s feeling when trapped.

The sequence then moves on to Aron in his home. Through the mise-en-scene we can tell that he is potentially leaving for a period of time, due to the fact he is packing essentials such as food, drink, and tools nessacery for an expedition. We also see him narrowly miss getting a hold of his sharp knife, foreshadowing the pain he has to go through later on when cutting his arm off with a blunt knife. It is also ironic how he is reaching with an arm that the he will no longer have by the end of the film. The music is quite upbeat. The normality of this opening title sequence creates an enigma in the audience as they would have seen this film marketed as a thriller and would be anticipating when something unusual will happen. This is a very unusual and clever way to crate a conventional feeling associated with the genre.

The sequence then returns to being split in to sections on the screen. The shots are now less active as not as many people are in the shots. Him driving in the other directions to the cyclists group suggests that he is going somewhere isolated. This is backed up by the sign saying “next services 100 miles” the switch to low key lighting suggests that where he is going is, as well as isolated, dangerous.

 

 

Textual Analysis 5: ‘The Girl With The Dragon Tattoo’ Opening Title Sequence

Introduction

‘The girl with the dragon tattoo’ is a 2011 Swedish-American psychological thriller film, directed by David Fincher and written by Steven Zaillian. The film is based on the novel, ‘The girl with the dragon tattoo’, written by Stieg Larsson.

The opening sequence below gives the audience a great insight to the darkness and violence of this film, plus giving them knowledge of what genre of film this is.

Through the editing work of Kirk Baxter, this sequence immediately sets the tone and atmosphere for this film as disturbing and action packed, portrayed through the choice of shots and mise-en-scene.

 

The opening sequence

 

Camera

In the sequence there are a lot of extreme close ups used. This means that usually there is only one character/object in the frame, and the camera tends to tracks across this one object/character. The character/object is usually covered in ink, adding mystery and enigma to the scene, increasing tension and interest within the audience. The use of constant close ups can make it hard for the audience to gather what is actually going on. this can then make the the audience disorientated and make the scene seem hectic, which is a good transition into the movie.

A lot of high angle shots are also used in the sequence, showing characters submerged in blackness, making them appear insignificant and helpless.

The camera movement in the sequence is never still, it is constantly panning or tracing across the frame, with gives a fast paced feel to the title sequence and adds to the idea of it being a thriller film.

 

Mise-en-scene

As I discovered through the analysis of the camera, there is usually only one person or object in the frame at a time, which makes that one thing become very significant in the shot. One thing that is focused on in multiple shots throughout the sequence is technology. The audience sees a series of shots with keyboards, and some other shots with wires and cables. This technology is representative of the protagonists profession as a hacker.

The most repetitive and iconic feature of the title sequence however is the black running ink that consumes all objects and characters in the sequence. The reasoning this ink is so repetitive and iconic in the opening title sequence is because it it representative of the title of the film ‘The girl with the dragon Tattoo’, which also happens to be the protagonists tattoo.

The colour theme is mostly black, with text given in white. This white text is representative of the purity of the characters against the dark background. However, the majority of the frame is black, suggesting that there will not be much purity within the film. The colours that are chosen in the opening sequence are both dark and dimly lit, thus creating a perfect and fitting mood and atmosphere for a thriller film.

 

Editing

At the start of the title sequence, multiple shots orderly flash upon screen rapidly. As I have already mentioned, this disorientates the audience as the shots are hard to see. This feeling of disorientation stays present in both the editing and in the audience throughout the title sequence, making it seem fast paced, shocking and gives the feel of a thriller genre.

The shots become frightful and scary, as in one shot it appears that a burning torch is falling into someones eye.

There is also a point in the sequence where close up shots of a women are being integrated with similar shots of a child. This could represent that the protagonist is childlike or something significant towards the story happened to her at this age.

As the pace of the music quickens, so does the speed of the frames and more jump cuts are introduced. This creates suspense and tension in the audience, very fitting for a thriller film.

Special effects are in full swing throughout the sequence, this is especially apparent with the ink. The viewer sees ink cover the face of humans, which usually wouldn’t be possible to do with real actors. So this therefore goes on to create a very serial environment for the viewer, making them feel anxious as it is something they are not used to.

 

Sound

The soundtrack in the sequence is called “Immigrant Song” by Karen O, and is placed in the music genre of hard rock. This genre of music is very fitting for the films protagonist, whom beholds a Gothic appearance and personality. The music also intensifies the whole sequence.

The soundtrack compliments and moves very well with the mise-en-scene, which keeps the audience interested as they can predict what may happen next.

 

Side Note 

This is yet another fantastic opening title sequence, directed by David Fincher, whom also directed “Se7en”. I will continue to explore some more of David Finchers work and opening title sequences along with others, however as of now David Fincher is probably my main inspiration in creating an opening title sequence for a thriller genre.

 

 

 

 

Textual Analysis 4: ‘Vertigo’ Opening Title Sequence

Introduction 

The film ‘Vertigo’ was made in 1958 and was directed and produced by Alfred Hitchcock. It was based on the 1954 novel ‘D’entre les morts’ by Pierre Boileau and Pierre Ayraud.

The lead actors in the film are James Stewart, Kim Novak, Barbara Bel Geddes and Tome Helmore.

The synopsis of the plot is about a retired police detective from the San Francisco bay area (whom suffers from acrophobia and vertigo) who is investigating the strange activities of an old friends wife, and ends up becoming dangerously obsessed with her.

 

The opening title sequence

This opening title sequence is split into two parts, part one is a mixture of live action and graphics, which were designed by Saul Bass. This first part of the sequence introduces the character Madeleine, played by Kim Novak.

The second part was directed by Alfred Hitchcock. It is live actions and begins the narrative of the film. it introduces John “Scottie” Furguson, played by James Stewart.

As you will see below, this opening title sequence uses live action and graphics, which would have been extremely unique in the 1950’s and totally different from anything the audience would have seen before.

 

Camera

In the first part of the opening title sequence only one shot type is used. This is a close up of the woman’s mouth and pans to her eyes. The screen then turns red, which connotes to the audience blood and/or danger. The camera is made to focus on her physical beauty, however it shows her as though she is in shock, with her twitching lip and her wide, unblinking eyes. This enhances the suspense within the audience , and is a key convention in thriller.

However in the second part of the sequence with the rooftop chase, there are multiple camera angles and shots used. For example, there is an establishing shot used to show the audience the location and to show that its set at night. A shallow depth of field is shown with the close up shot of the hand giving the audience a sense of enigma before the audience see the the next shot of whom the hand belongs to. A point of view angle shot is used from the perspective of the protagonist looking down when he is helplessly hanging in the air, this connotes a possible fear of heights and represents the powerless situation he is in.

Sound

The non-diagetic music starts as soon as the universal logo fades. Eerie music is played to build up suspense in the audience, a common convention in thriller. The music gets louder and faster, making the audience feel like something is going to happen. This non-diagetic music runs through the entirety of the opening sequence, including the police chase, this is to give the audience an idea of what genre it is and to build suspense through the scene. There is very little dialouge in the opening sequence, yet the little diagetic sound creates a lot of enigma in the audience. Also, when the policeman falls the music deepens echoing the mood.

Editing 

The scene with the woman’s face is one long take, adding a slow pace to the sequence adding suspense to the audience.

Graphical geometric shapes and special effects were edited in the sequence. The audience see spirals spinning in the eyes of one of the characters, to represent the vertigo that the protagonist suffers from. The spirals are also repetitive, as one leaves another suddenly appears. This symbolises a never ending fear.

Slow paced transitions are used to convey the dark mood of the film. The straight cuts are used to make the scene dramatic.

Mise-en-scene

In the first part, the audience is not shown what the lady is wearing, portraying that that the director only wants the audince to focus on the close up shot of her face, which shows her physical beauty and her fear.

However in the second part with the chase, the audience sees three men in formal attire, and one is in a police uniform, representing that he has higher authority. This higher authority is backed up as he is the one who is chasing the other man, as if he is the predator and the other man is the prey. Also the only prop used in the sequence is the police mans gun, showing his high authority.

The protagonist in the chase scene is wearing a suit, which is not what is expected in a chase scene, adding enigma. The suit does however signify his possible profession and status.

The setting of the woman’s location is unknown, adding enigma to the scene. The setting in the chase is the roof tops in San Francisco, the running across rooftops signifies the danger of the situation.

Also the use of low key lighting makes the setting and atmosphere seem dark and mysterious, to run parallel with the genre. The street lights and the darkness contrast in the chase scene. The contrast of light and dark in the scene conveys good and evil in the scene.

 

Textual Analysis 3: ‘Skyfall’ Opening Title Sequence

The film ‘Skyfall’ (2012) is the 23rd instalment of the James Bond Film Franchise and is directed by Sam Mendes.

The story centres around Bond investigating an attack on MI6; the attack is carried out by former MI6 agent Raoul Silva as apart of his plot to humiliate, discredit and kill M as revenge against her for betraying him.

The film starts in a unusual manner, as in the prologue Bond is shot, and the audience is lead to believe he is dead, this leads on to an incredible title sequence.

 

 

Camera

A James Bond film’s title sequence often reflects the theme of the story, and the audience can see this first through the camera work. The first shot is an establishing shot of the protagonist, James Bond, drowning. At the start of the shot, the audience witness a low angle, which typically connotes power, however the audience is not shown Bond’s face until the shot is a high angle, which signifies a loss in power or control in Bond. Additionally a tracking long shot into a medium shot is used, suggesting that we are following Bond on a journey.

The audience also sees a long shot of a hand grasping a hold of Bond and dragging him down further, illustrating that the protagonist may have enemies pulling him in the film.

james-bond-skyfall-daniel-craig-opening-credits-hand

A high angle is used in the screen shot below from the opening title sequence as the protagonist plummets into a black hole. This camera angle is used here to reinforce that Bond is venerable and the fact he is plummeting into a black hole suggests that what happens next in his journey is unknown.

skyfall-opening-titleBelow is a mid shot of a cardboard cut-out of the protagonist, with blow flowing out of his right shoulder implying it is the sound he sustained from being shot in the prologue. The red blood has connotations with danger. The cardboard cut-out of Bond is in the form of a gun target, which suggests that the protagonist is the target in the film.  skyfall-card-board-cut-out

To end the opening sequence an extreme close up of the protagonists eye is used. The camera zooms into the Protagonists pupils, suggesting that the film is going to be portrayed from Bond’s perspective or point of view. skyfall-eye

 

Mise-en-scene

skyfall-grave

The shot to the left from the opening title sequence is of falling knives which turn into gravestones. This is significant as it foreshadows events that will happen in the film. For example, Raoul Silva is is killed in a graveyard by the use of a knife.

The use of mirrors and silhouettes give a good action shot of the protagonist. The fact that he essentially shoots himself indicates to the audience that the problems he faces in the film could be self inflicted.

skyfall-mirrors

The protagonist appears to be wearing a formal suit throughout the entirety of the title sequence. This indicates power, authority and professionalism. It also highlights his significance and illustrates that he could be a very important character.

 

Editing

A lot of the editing is faced paced cuts in the sequence, which keeps the audience focused and interested as they don’t want to miss anything. Black screens are also used to distinguish between different scenes. A lot of the shots in the sequence are made up of CGI and animation. However, one of the most iconic edits in the sequence wasn’t animation. This was the shot which zooms into Bonds eye and then the rest of the sequence continues through his eyes. This could symbolise the fact that Bond is a spy and he sees everything, or it could symbolise that in the film Bond is fighting himself in a mental battle, which is one of the main themes in the film. This links to the idea that all opening title sequences in Bond films link with the film itself. In the opening sequence mainly low key lighting is used to give a eerie and mysterious atmosphere, however occasionally high key lighting is used in the sequence.

Foreshadowing is again apparent in the title sequence through editing. This is through the title of the character ‘M’. In the background of the title for M (played by Judi Dench), there are graves, which symbolises death, foreshadowing what happens to this character in the film.

skyfall-m-grave

 

Sound

In the opening sequence, the only sound heard is the non-diegetic soundtrack for the film produced and performed by Adele. It begins with the lyrics “this is the end” which corresponds with the shot of the protagonist as he has just been shot. This creates an enigma that he could in fact be dead, however this is unlikely as the sequence has just began. This is the followed by “hold your breathe and count to ten” which runs parallel with the shot of Bond sinking into a black hole. The tune starts off quiet and slow, then gradually builds up as the audience follow the protagonist, thus also building up tension in the viewer. The power portrayed in Adele’s voice is a strong connective to the power in the protagonist.

 

Textual Analysis 2: ‘Psycho’ Opening Title Sequence

Introduction and Background

The 1960’s film ‘Psycho’ is an american psychological horror  film directed and produced by Alfred Hitchcock, and written by Joseph Stefano. It was based on the 1959 novel ‘Psycho’ by Robert Bloch. The film is about a secretary called Leigh (Marion Crane), who steals money from her employer and ends up at a secluded motel which is owned by a disturbed Perkins (Norman Bates) , and its aftermath.

Textual Analysis

In the mise-en-scene of the opening sequence the audience sees the first shot  to be a shot of a city. This is a very generic location for the thriller genre. Without being introduced to any of the characters yet, the audience can infer that the characters maybe quite wealthy and have good jobs as the audience are told that it is set in Arizona and living in an established city connotes this idea of wealth and a higher social class.

The camera work plays a pivotal role in this opening sequence to make it effective. Firstly, the film is shot in black and white, even though colour was available in the time the film was made. This was done to give a spooky and unconventional feel to the film, and also resemble the mind of a ‘Psycho’. Secondly, the first shot the audience sees is an extreme long shot and pans slowly and gradually across the setting, revealing more of the city and landscape to the audience. By using this establishing shot it sets both the scene and the mood of the film early on. The use of this technique also makes it seem as if the audience is searching or scanning the city for someone or something. Also, this helps the audience to identify that a character my be introduced and the movement keeps the audience’s attention. Likewise with the mise-en-scene, although no characters have yet been introduced, using an establishing shot helps the viewer to identify aspects of their lives; where and how they live. The scene is cut to a shot of a slightly jarred open window and the camera is made to zoom into a close up shot of the window, and eventually leads into a bedroom. This makes the audience feel uneasy and uncomfortable as this action connotes an invasion of privacy and leads the reader to feel as if they are spying on someone and their life.

At the beginging of the sequence the audience see editing techniques being used as the oping credits transition onto screen, and the text appears randomly, being split and taken by horizontal and vertical bars. During the opening sequence, the most identifiable use of editing and argueable the main concept of editing in the sequence are the titles. This is because it gives the audience knowledge of the setting and the date of hich the film is set in. An example of this is when titles appear saying “Phoenix, Arizona” and “Friday, December the Eleventh”. However, the audience is not provided with the year in which the film is set, which could connote that it is set when the film was made or that the concept of the film could happen at anytime, it is not era-specific. Furthermore, the date and time is written in text as opposed to numbers which is quite unconventional and creates curiousty in the audience. The font and style of the text is very genric to a Psychological Thriller, due to the dark background and the bold white text. The text is disruupted and distorted whenever it transtions onto the screen, which gives the audience a sense of uncomfort, and helps thm tho start to become aware of the concept of the story.

The non-diegetic sound used in the opening sequence is very conventional of the genre as it is fast paced and gives a feeling of unease to the audience. As well as the feeling of unease it gives off, it also comes across unstable, as the volume constantly changes, as if someone is turning it up and down. The non-diegetic sound also is representive of time running out, as it is a sound the viewer culturally links to perhaps a chase scene in a movie, where a character is racing againsdt time to escape. This cultural link may lead the viewer to think that the protagonist, even though they have not yet been introduced, maybe against time at some point in the film. This non-diegetic sound is used also to give a dramatic atmosphere full of suspense and tension to the sequence, and helps to set a tone for the audience and gives them an insight into what to expect from the film.

Textual Analysis 1: ‘Se7en’ Opening Title Sequence

Below I will be writing a textual analysis on the opening sequence of the film ‘Se7en’ directed by David Fincher.

In the opening sequence for the film ‘Se7en’, the audience has a very clear understanding that is a thriller film. One aspect that makes this explicitly clear is the camera work. The sequence consists of many extreme close-ups, which avoids any identification of the antagonist in the sequence. This is common among thriller films as not revealing the face of the antagonist adds suspense to the film. The camera is also juddering in the shots and during the texts. This unstable camera work is a representation of the audiences cultural knowledge of psychopaths being mentally unstable.

Along with the camera work, the editing gives the audience a sense of psychotic behaviour. The burr and double exposure is used to run parallel along with the confused mind of a psychopath. The director, David Finch, and Cooper, the creative director, worked very hard on the editing of the opening scene to give the sequence a very raw feel to compliment the genre. They did this by combining older techniques of handling the film mixed with contemporary digital design. An example of this is that the actual film was scratched with a needle to degrade the the footage, giving a raw and textured feel. The scratches signify violence that takes place later on in the film. The editing is very quick and flashy which leaves the audience confused and disorientated. The quick flashes imitate death, as if life is flashing before a persons eyes. They also created the text by a hand written alphabet, which portrays a lack stability in the typography, linking to the unstable antagonist. The tempo is also very fast pace to build tension at the start of the movie.

The audio in the opening sequence has a very eiry non diegetic sound as if something is scratching on something. This makes the audience feel uneasy, and adds to the compliments of the genre. Also at the end of the sequence, the non diegetic music adds someone singing a line of speech “get closer to God”. This links to the antagonists motives in the film.

Through the mise-en-scene the audience can evidence that this is a thriller genre and can infer that the antagonist in the sequence is taking part in eiry illagal work. The props that are shown in the sequence are tools, proposing that the antagonist is working on something. We also see the antagonist remove his finger prints with one of his tools, suggesting that they do not won’t to leave a trace. The setting appears to be in either a workshop or basement type location. This holds connotations of a place where poeple perform projects that they don’t want others to see, or at least until they have finished. In the sequence, the audience is not given much infomation about the character it’s self, however, the audience can infer that this character is a psychopath, or at least unstable. This is due to the unusual work of this character, and they work that is being perfromed is only understood by them. The marking out of words and peoples faces suggests that the antagonist wants to hide something, which conotes ideas of a criminal. The criminality of this character is enforced by the removing of the finger prints, as this too conotes criminality. Low-key lighting is used throughout the sequence, and is common amoung thriller films as it gives a dark aspect to the film.